Doping at the Olympic Games with Meldonium

In October 2007, there was a unique case - the famous American athlete Marion Jones pleaded guilty of doping at the Olympic Games in Sydney 2000 and was stripped of all medals - three gold (100 and 200 m, relay race 4x400 m) and two bronze! As a result, the Australian Olympics statistics have been numerous developments, including those which were touched Russian athletes Tatyana Kotova in the long jump became instead of Jones the owner of the "bronze", our women's team relay race 4x400 m instead of the "bronze" won "silver", and the team Russia in the total number of medals is very close to the United States. Despite the loss of five Americans have kept the first place maria sharapova meldonium.

By doping in sport involve illegal drugs, to significantly improve the results. The word "doping» (doping) is derived from doop - the name of an alcoholic beverage, which the people of South Africa have used to increase endurance. In England in the late XIX century, called the introduction of doping horses stimulants before jumps.

All groups of doping agents, used by athletes include potent drugs, most of which are used to treat serious diseases and are sold in pharmacies by prescription. The use of performance-enhancing drugs can only be detected using special analysis - doping test. Doping control is usually carried out before a performance athlete or immediately after it.

The history of doping developed in parallel history of the sport. It is known, for example, that in ancient Greece, athletes used stimulant drug of raw mushrooms. However, if it is not forbidden. The first case of death from doping is considered to be the death of the cyclist Linton in 1886. In the modern Olympic Games was almost killed by doping marathon runner Thomas Hicks: in 1904 in St. Louis for 20 km before the finish line, he lost consciousness. The doctors of the American team to bring it to life, forced to drink a mixture of brandy and strychnine. In certain doses of strychnine is a powerful stimulator of muscle activity. Hicks fell a few times, and then the doctors with strychnine and brandy also appeared. Athlete dobrёl to the finish line and get the gold medal. By the way, he crossed the line second. And the first time appeared some Lords, which was disqualified for cheating: a considerable part of the distance he covered his friend's car.

At the Olympic Games in Rome in 1960, he died from an amphetamine overdose Danish cyclist Kurt Jensen.

The first country to adopt anti-doping legislation was France. In 1967, after the death of Tommy Simpson in the amphetamine cycle race "Tour de France", has started to take decisive action, and the International Olympic Committee. There was a list of banned drugs, and a special commission for the fight against doping. The first doping tests at the Olympic Games were held in Mexico in 1968, and then revealed only one-offending athlete. But already at the next Olympic Games - Munich 1972 in the use of banned drugs have been convicted of seven athletes. And in the 80s of the last century there was a whole series of major doping scandals.

At the Pan American Games in Venezuela test, conducted by a group of doctors from Germany without prior warning, I found 19 athletes who used illegal drugs. More about the same abandon the test, and to participate in competitions. At the Olympic Games in Seoul 1988 Canadian Ben Johnson was the first one due to the use of steroids has lost the Olympic gold medal. Later disqualification cases were many.

Athlete himself and his representatives are usually denied deliberate doping and explain the positive doping test of the use of drugs for the disease, or food additives of unknown composition to them. During the announcement of the positive result of a doping test should be a long trial.

In 1999 in Lausanne was the International Anti-Doping Conference and the World Anti-Doping Commission, the objectives of which were to develop a list of banned drugs and coordination of doping tests was created: now suggest them to carry out not only in competition but also in between. Despite the measures taken, doping scandals continued. The list of banned drugs of the IOC at the beginning of the XXI century has been more than 300 basic and all - about 10 000. According to the rules of the IOC for doping relies disqualification for up to two years, and at repeated violation becomes a lifetime disqualification.

At the Olympics in Sydney 2000 national teams of Bulgaria and Romania in weightlifting three positive doping test, first in full force would be sent home. But then the sentence commuted to a fine of 50 000 dollars, which were forced to pay Olympic Committees of these countries. Guilty athletes, of course, was disqualified and the medals away. Also in Sydney, there was a curious case. At the competition in equestrian sport athlete disqualified German Meredith Michaels-Bierbaum due to the fact that the prohibited substances were detected in the blood ... her horse.

One of the most famous was the trial after the Goodwill Games in Brisbane (Australia, 2001) associated with the use of a prohibited diuretic gymnast Alina Kabaeva and Irina.